The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (commonly referred to as the Recovery Act), which was signed into law on Feb. 17, 2009, makes a number of beneficial tax changes for individuals. However, most of them are temporary in nature. Unless extended by future legislation, they apply for 2009 only or in some cases for 2009 and 2010. Here's a review of the more widely applicable provisions that could have an impact on you and your family.
Making Work Pay Credit. Individuals who work generally get a credit of up to $400 ($800 for joint filers). The credit is refundable, meaning you get it even if you owe no income tax. This change applies for 2009 and 2010. The credit is the lesser of 6.2% of your earned income or $400 ($800 on a joint return). The credit is phased out for joint filers with modified adjusted gross income between $150,000 and $190,000 and other taxpayers with modified AGI between $75,000 and $95,000.
You won't be getting a separate check from the IRS as you did with last year's Stimulus payment. Rather, your employer will automatically adjust your withholding so that you will get a little more money in each paycheck. If you have multiple jobs, you may have to adjust your withholding so that too much is not taken out. If you are self-employed, you can effectively receive the credit in advance by reducing your estimated tax payments.
Sales Tax Deduction for Vehicle Purchases. For 2009, there is a new deduction for state and local sales and excise taxes paid on the purchase of new cars, light trucks, motor homes, and motorcycles after February 16, 2009 and before January 1, 2010. The deduction generally is available regardless of whether you itemize deductions on Schedule A or claim the standard deduction.
The deduction is limited to the tax on up to $49,500 of the purchase price of an eligible motor vehicle.
The deduction is phased out for joint filers with modified adjusted gross income between $250,000 and $260,000 and other taxpayers with modified AGI between $125,000 and $135,000.
If you itemize and choose the option to deduct state sales taxes in lieu of state income taxes, you don't get the new deduction. This prevents you from getting a double deduction for the sales taxes on the vehicle but it also involves some tricky planning considerations because different rules apply to the optional deduction and the new deduction. For example, the new deduction but not the optional deduction is allowed against the alternative minimum tax. Additionally, the optional deduction is subject to a limitation that caps the deduction for sales tax on a motor vehicle to the general sales tax rate.
Improved First-Time Homebuyer Credit. Last year's Housing Act included a refundable tax credit for first-time homebuyers equal to the lesser of 10% of the purchase price or $7,500 for qualifying purchases after April 1, 2008 and before July 1, 2009. The credit is essentially an interest-free loan because it has to be paid back to the government over 15 years.
The Recovery Act has improved the credit for 2009 purchases by (1) eliminating the requirement to pay it back (subject to exceptions), (2) increasing the maximum credit to $8,000, and (3) making it available for purchases through November 2009.
You can treat a 2009 purchase as having been made on December 31, 2008 and thus get an immediate refund when you file your 2008 taxes by the April 15, 2009 filing deadline. Even if you have already filed your 2008 taxes, you can file an amended 2008 return to get the credit for a 2009 purchase.
You are considered a first-time homebuyer if you (or your spouse, if married) had no present ownership interest in a principal residence in the U.S. during the 3-year period before the purchase of the home to which the credit applies.
The first time homebuyer credit, whether claimed in 2008 or 2009, phases out for individual taxpayers with modified adjusted gross income between $75,000 and $95,000 ($150,000–$170,000 for joint filers).
College Tax Breaks. The Recovery Act expands tax breaks for individuals seeking a college education. For 2009 and 2010, it gives taxpayers a new “American Opportunity” tax credit of up to $2,500 of the cost of tuition and related expenses paid during the tax year. You receive a tax credit based on 100% of the first $2,000 of tuition and related expenses (including books) paid during the tax year and 25% of the next $2,000 of tuition and related expenses paid during the tax year. The credit is available for the first four years of post-secondary education in a degree or certificate program. Forty percent of the credit is refundable. The credit is phased out for taxpayers with modified AGI between $80,000 and $90,000 ($160,000 and $180,000 for joint filers).
Improved Energy Tax Break. The Recovery Act includes a number of provisions that are designed to promote the creation and use of alternative forms of energy including these new or improved energy tax breaks for individuals:
… The Recovery Act extends the tax credit for energy-efficient improvements to existing homes through 2010 and modifies it in various ways so that a larger credit is possible after 2008.
… Under pre-Recovery Act law, individuals could claim a 30% tax credit for qualified solar water heating property (capped at $2,000), qualified small wind energy property (capped at $500 per kilowatt of capacity, up to $4,000), and qualified geothermal heat pumps (capped at $2,000). For tax years beginning after 2008, the Recovery Act removes these individual dollar caps. As a result, each of these types of improvements is eligible for an uncapped 30% credit.
… The Recovery Act modifies the existing credit for new qualified plug-in electric drive motor vehicles, effective for vehicles acquired after December 31, 2009.
… For vehicles bought after February 17, 2009 and before January 1, 2012, the Recovery Act creates a new 10% nonrefundable personal credit (up to a maximum of $2,500 per vehicle) for electric drive low-speed vehicles, motorcycles, and three-wheeled vehicles.
… For property placed in service after February 17, 2009 and property converted before January 1, 2012, the Recovery Act creates a new 10% credit, up to $4,000, for the cost of converting any motor vehicle into a qualified plug-in electric drive motor vehicle.
These are just the highlights of the Recovery Act. If you need details on a specific topic, please give our office a call at (860) 646-2465 and we’ll be glad to answer your questions.